Zeisel, H., & Diamond, S. S. (1978). The effects of peremptory challenges on jury and verdict: An experiment in a federal district court. Stanford Law Review, 30, 491-531.
Compared actual juries with shadow “English” juries, shadow juries composed of excused jurors, and hypothetical juries without challenges during voir dire. Predicted likelihood of guilt for actual juries and hypothetical juries differed substantially in 3 of 12 trials but overall impact of composition slight because attorneys not good at identifying jurors sympathetic to opposing side.