Blanck, P. D. (1985). The appearance of justice: Judges’ verbal and nonverbal behavior in criminal jury trials. Stanford Law Review, 38, 89-164.
Defendants with prior felony arrest (not conviction) more likely to be convicted. Moderate positive association between defendants’ socioeconomic status and conviction. Observer ratings of judge courtroom behavior moderately-strongly related to jury verdicts. Poor judge-jury agreement on appropriate verdict (weak negative relationship).