The appearance of justice: Judges’ verbal and nonverbal behavior in criminal jury trials.

Blanck, P. D. (1985). The appearance of justice: Judges’ verbal and nonverbal behavior in criminal jury trials. Stanford Law Review, 38, 89-164.

Defendants with prior felony arrest (not conviction) more likely to be convicted. Moderate positive association between defendants’ socioeconomic status and conviction. Observer ratings of judge courtroom behavior moderately-strongly related to jury verdicts. Poor judge-jury agreement on appropriate verdict (weak negative relationship).

http://bbi.syr.edu/publications/blanck_docs/1985-1994/38StanLRev89.pdf