Rustad, M., & Koenig, T. (1995). Reconceptualizing punitive damages in medical malpractice: Targeting amoral corporations, not “moral monsters.” Rutgers Law Review, 47, 975-1083.
Conducted extensive national search of punitive awards in U.S. jury trials involving medical malpractice cases between 1963 and 1993. Steady increase in percentage of corporate defendants during interval. Plaintiff age moderately associated with type of malpractice. Distribution of punitive awards highly skewed.