Badzinski, D. M., & Pettus, A. B. (1994). Nonverbal involvement and sex: Effects on jury decision making. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 22, 309-321.
This study investigated the influence of judges’ nonverbal involvement and sex on jury decisions. Our investigation found that jurors’ ratings of credibility, attractiveness and attentiveness were positively associated with nonverbal involvement of judges. Although the female high and low involved judges were perceived similarly, the highly involved male judge was perceived as more credible and attractive than his low involved counterpart. The results also showed that judges’ nonverbal involvement had little impact on jurors’ perceptions of trial outcome. Discussion focuses on the consequences of violating nonverbal and sex‐stereotype expectations in the courtroom.