Diamond, S. S., Saks, M. J., & Landsman, S. (1998). Juror judgments about liability and damages: Sources of variability and ways to increase consistency. DePaul Law Review, 48, 301-325.
Jury award variability much less than juror predeliberation variability but still relatively high for pain and suffering compared with economic damages. Plaintiff ad damnum appeared to act as anchor.