Juror characteristics: To what extent are they related to jury verdicts?

Mills, C. J., & Bohannon, W. E. (1980). Juror characteristics: To what extent are they related to jury verdicts? Judicature, 64, 23-31.

THE MAILED QUESTIONNAIRE (SENT ORIGINALLY TO 226 MALES AND 324 FEMALES RANDOMLY SELECTED FROM BALTIMORE JURY PANELS) FOCUSED ON THE JURY DECISION REACHED, THE JURORS’ PERCEPTION OF THEIR ROLE IN THE JURY PROCESS, THEIR EFFECTIVENESS IN THAT ROLE, AND THE JURORS’ ATTITUDE CONCERNING THE FINAL OUTCOME. DATA FROM EACH QUESTIONNAIRE ITEM BROKEN DOWN BY SEX, RACE, EDUCATION, AND AGE WERE ANALYZED BY COMPUTING CHI-SQUARES. THE RESULTS INDICATED THAT SEX AND RACE INTERACTIONS WERE PARTICULARLY STRONG WITH REGARD TO ALMOST ALL EXPLORED ASPECTS. REACHING 67 PERCENT OF ALL GUILTY VERDICTS, FEMALE JURORS WERE MORE CONVICTION-PRONE THAN MALES, BUT THIS DIFFERENCE APPLIED ESPECIALLY TO BLACK MALES AND FEMALES. AGE AND EDUCATION WERE SIGNIFICANT TO THE VERDICT ONLY FOR MALES: AS AGE INCREASED, THEY BECAME MORE LIKELY TO CONVICT; CONVERSELY, MALES OF HIGHER EDUCATION LEVELS BECAME MORE LIKELY TO ACQUIT. FEMALES DID NOT PERCEIVE THEMSELVES AS INFLUENTIAL IN THE JURY, AND THE ODDS OF FEMALES SERVING AS JURY FOREMEN WERE ONLY HALF THOSE OF MALES. CONTRARY TO EXPECTATIONS, WOMEN WERE NOT FOUND TO BE MORE EMPHATIC THAN MEN IN TERMS OF GUILTY VERDICTS OR WHEN CONSIDERING A DEFENDANT’S INTENTIONS. THEY WERE, HOWEVER, MORE LIKELY TO AGREE WITH THE DECISION THE JURY REACHED IN THE END. THE RESULTS SUPPORT THE UTILITY OF STUDYING SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS AS AN AID TO UNDERSTANDING JUROR BEHAVIOR, AND FURTHER RESEARCH IS RECOMMENDED. Juror race, age, and education weakly related to verdict preferences, moderated by gender and case type. Men more likely to report changing vote during deliberation and disagreeing with jury’s final verdict. Women reported being less influential than men during deliberation. 14% of respondents indicated overriding duty to reach a verdict, even if uncertain.

https://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=69116