Hastie, R., Penrod, S. D., & Pennington, N. (1983). Inside the jury. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Small effect of decision rule on verdicts and large effect on deliberation time. Non-unanimous juries tended to deliberate less, hang less, choose harsher verdict options, and finish with holdout jurors. Deliberation focused on testimony and produced a severity shift toward actual verdict; participation varied widely and negatively related to faction size. All jurors displayed relatively poor recall of evidence and judge’s instructions, but jury-level memory better. Forepersons spoke 3 x more than average juror. Weak relationships between juror characteristics, predeliberation preferences, and deliberation behavior.